Kernenergie und Politikberatung: Die Vermessung einer Kontroverse (German Edition)
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The point here is more about how democracy not only thrives on acting on one's opinion, but at least as much on recognizing the legal order of things. This legal order includes all its elements: compliance with international treaties, respecting the current energy law, and complying with laws that ensure security and protection from criminality.
As a part of the Rechtsstaat argumentation, Christian Democrat and Liberal MPs raised the question of suitable political language in the representative parliament. This concerned especially the speeches and writing of several Green and leftist MPs who had incited people to sabotage.
View all notes Other speakers of the ruling coalition likewise highlighted how both current violent acts and speeches inciting people to perpetrate them were illegitimate infringements of the law and also undemocratic.
She referred to the tradition of civil disobedience in the former East Germany, where it had been used, according to her, against immoral actions by the authorities; now people in Gundremmingen felt that the state did not consider the basis of their livelihood. Despite some similarities in the arguments about nuclear energy issues, in general the Greens remained decidedly critical of the PDS's Stalinist legacy. View all notes Therefore, the PDS utilized topics of environmental and energy policy rather as instruments to pursue demonstrative opposition politics, whereas the Greens had more profound ideological motives based on the party's background.
Fuhrmann presented a historical example of the persecution of Jews opposed by none until it was too late. View all notes In the other words, by making this extreme comparison, Fuhrmann considered the use of violence justified in some cases.
Westerwelle thus suggested that certain kinds of political language were undemocratic, since they constituted an incitement to criminal acts. In —97 the parliamentary debates about the transportation of radioactive waste and related events concerned mainly domestic issues, even though the transports to Gorleben and demonstrations were actually very much transnationally linked. The transportation took place partly between Germany and France, where spent nuclear fuel from German nuclear power plants was reprocessed at La Hague.
Further, demonstrations took place on both sides of the Franco-German border. The situation and debates around transporting nuclear waste changed somewhat dramatically in spring During the spring months, it had become public knowledge both in France and Germany that the transported containers of radioactive waste had on several occasions exceeded the limits set for radiation.
The Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, Angela Merkel, took the view that the main problem was lack of trust among citizens regarding safety issues. She called a halt to all transports inside Germany or between Germany and other countries during the upcoming investigations. This was an understandable political solution, but at the same time it contradicted the contracts and principles prohibiting the storing of radioactive waste abroad and requiring Germany to retrieve its radioactive waste from foreign reprocessing plants.
View all notes but this argumentation had still only a minor role during the years — View all notes In general, the red—green government has been said to have expressed greater enthusiasm towards domestic policy issues such as the employment situation than towards foreign policy issues, even though Germany's efforts to promote, for example the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU, should not be disregarded. Reutter ed.
View all notes However, the ban on transportation ordered by Merkel eventually led the Bundestag to reformulate some of the earlier arguments about German democracy in the context of foreign relations. The Green Party, which was in the federal government for the first time, lacked experience in taking responsibility for foreign relations. In France declared that it would no longer accept any German nuclear waste for reprocessing before the transports from La Hague to Germany continued, as noted in November in the Bundestag by Birgit Homburger FDP.
She pointed out that there was a valid contract between Cogeman and the nuclear energy operators and that there had been an exchange of notes between Germany and France on the issue. She urged the federal government to fulfil all national and international contracts in order to preserve Germany's reliability in foreign affairs.
Now the French government had become involved in the situation and demanded that Germany repatriate the waste. It was also clear to the red—green coalition that further transportation must follow. View all notes Collectively, when faced with governmental responsibilities, even the Green politicians who while in opposition had previously advocated the principles of grassroots democracy and local decision-making in nuclear energy issues, were compelled to modify their conceptions of democracy in the face of the necessity to acknowledge the importance of foreign affairs.
They were forced to justify through political rhetoric why, in German democracy, decisions could not be taken solely on the basis of national interests.sanabizar.cf
World of Mining - 5/2016
View all notes The Greens were in the federal government for the first time, and as a novice party they had to be ready to make compromises and at least in part to give up their radical stance. Collectively, continuity was evidently understood as an elementary part of democracy; even though changes in nuclear energy policy had been required and attempts had been made to push these through, speakers of the red—green coalition acknowledged that certain demands, such as agreements with foreign countries, had to be fulfilled, which in practice limited the possibilities to bring about radical political changes in parliamentary democracy.
This was, of course, also practical political rhetoric, but it nevertheless caused the majority of MPs to concede that there were indeed limitations to how radically the previous policy could be changed. The parliamentary debates from onwards brought together the decades-long conflict over the essence of the German democratic state; the struggle between competing democratic values and ideas originating from the emergence of protest groups and movements in German society in previous decades.
Ideas of liberal representative democracy supported by conservative parties and the Social Democrats clashed with those of the Greens and leftists, who expressed criticism of the principles and fulfilment of representative democracy purely through parliamentary institutions. All the participants wanted to ensure a democratic state, but the case examined in this article revealed conflicts in their understandings of the meaning of democracy.
in History and Sociology
All the parties in the Bundestag aimed at safeguarding the democratic state against historically based fears of a totalitarian state in which democracy was neither respected nor adequately fulfilled. On the one hand, for the conservatives and largely for the Social Democrats, defending a democratic state also meant respecting the principle of parliamentary majority, representative democracy and the state's monopoly on the use of force, which they evidently considered a means of preventing the rise of populism and to promote stable conditions in society.
On the other hand, for the Greens, fighting for a democratic state meant ensuring the people's right to participate, complementing parliamentary democracy via grassroots democracy and wide fulfilment of fundamental rights in order to prevent the state from becoming authoritarian. The tensions in the Bundestag can be explained to some extent through an elementary feature of representative democracy: it requires a workable opposition minority that criticizes the decisions and policy of the government majority.
Even from this perspective, the situation around the transportation of radioactive waste had indubitably higher importance in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the federal parliament, it was used as an opportunity to test and re define the meaning, boundaries and core essence of the German democracy in a conflict situation, when there were confrontations between citizens and the state monopoly on the use of force.
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Journal Parliaments, Estates and Representation Volume 38, - Issue 1 : Parliamentary debates: a style of democratic politics. Submit an article Journal homepage. Pages Published online: 01 Feb Original Articles. Introduction A vigorous anti-nuclear movement arose in Germany in the mid s to resist the transportation of spent nuclear fuel elements to the interim storage facility in Gorleben, Lower Saxony. View all notes The confrontations around the transports of radioactive waste from onwards culminating in the vicinity of Gorleben, also called Wendland, have a special symbolic significance for the German anti-nuclear movement.
View all notes The history of the German anti-nuclear movement has been a fairly widely discussed topic among scholars who have already successfully studied the motives of the movement and the criticism it has expressed from various viewpoints: the movement has been motivated by safety issues, but it has also made obvious demands concerning decision-making processes and the principles of democracy. View all notes By studying the debates of the German federal parliament, the Bundestag, on the transportation of radioactive waste to Gorleben and the ensuing demonstrations in —, this article illustrates how these events caused significant political struggles over the meaning of German democracy in the parliamentary sphere.
View all notes The analysis applies methods of conceptual analysis to parliamentary research, presenting a macro-level semantic and micro-level pragmatic analysis of political language. The use of violence in a democratic state In the federal parliament, the main issue giving rise to tensions was the use of violence by the state and also by its citizens. View all notes Merkel's personal background becomes evident in her speeches about nuclear energy.
View all notes The question of the legitimacy of the protest movements around the transports to Gorleben divided opinion in the Bundestag. The contested principle of parliamentary majority In the parliamentary debates of the case under discussion, another pivotal issue causing tensions was the different perceptions of the principle of majority rule in democratic decision-making processes.
View all notes There were many speeches by the Green MPs in which they described situations when people could legitimately use civil disobedience to object to decisions made according to the principle of parliamentary majority rule. Ausgehend von dem hohen Entwicklungsstand von Radialgleitlagern koennen Axiallager sowie kegelfoermige Gleitflaechen mit beliebigen Kegelwinkeln in gleicher Weise simuliert werden. Dem hohen Festkoerperkontaktanteil in dem zu untersuchenden System wird durch die Beruecksichtigung der integralen Wirkung der realen mikroskopischen Oberflaechenstruktur auf Mikrohydrodynamik und Kontaktdruckaufbau Rechnung getragen.
Anhand von Simulationsergebnissen kann der. Arting from an analysis of road transport tanker accidents, crash tests and overturn tests were performed and supplemented by investigations of road transport tanker components and accompanying complex calculations of the failure processes. Parallel to this, the static side-tilt stability of road transport tankers was determined on a tilting test platform.
The causes of and constructive possibilities for avoiding overturning, which is the most common cause of accidents in which hazardous materials escape, wewre analysed in dynamic driving tests with supplementary computer simulation. Various measures for improving the safety of road transport tankers were determined and subjected to a cost-benefit analysis. Ausgehend von der detaillierten Analyse von Tankfahrzeugunfaellen wurden Tankfahrzeug-Crashversuche und Tankfahrzeug-Umsturzversuche durchgefuehrt. Diese Messungen an kompletten Fahrzeugen.
Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur sonographischen Frakturdiagnostik im Kinderalter.
Nach einem Trauma ist die klinische Untersuchung und Bestimmung des Schmerzmaximums gerade bei Kindern oft sehr schwierig. Die hierbei auftretende ionisierende Strahlung geht jedoch besonder Experimental and numerical analysis of the static and dynamic crack growth resistance behaviour of structural steels in the temperature range from 20 C to C; Experimentelle und numerische Untersuchungen des statischen und dynamischen Risswiderstandsverhaltens verschiedener hoeherfester Baustaehle im Temperaturbereich von 20 C bis C.
Aurich, D. In the steels StE and 22 NiMoCr, the minimum crack growth resistance is observed at about C, with measured values always being higher for the latter steel type.